Friday, 24 July 2020

How to use the signed checksum files to verify Debian media images

Following on from the blog post the other day in some sense: someone has asked on the debian-user list: "I do not understand from the given page (https://www.debian.org/CD/verify)  how to use .sign files and gpg in order to check verify the authenticity of debian cds. I understand the part with using sha256sum or sha512sum or md5sum to check whether the files were downloaded correctly."

Distributed with the CD and other media images on Debian CD mirrors, there are files like MD5SUM, MD5SUM.sign, SHA256SUM, SHA256SUM.sign and so on.

SHA512SUM is a plain text list of the SHA512SUMs for each of the files in the directory. SHA512SUM.sign is the GPG-signed version of that file. This allws for non-repudiation - if the signature is valid, then the plain text file has been signed by the owner of that key. Nothing has tampered with the checksums file since it was signed.

After downloading the SHA1SUM, SHA256SUM and SHA512SUM files and the corresponding .sign files from, say, the prime Debian CD mirror at

Assuming that you already have GPG installed: sha256sum and sha512sum are installed by the coreutils package, which Debian installs by default.

gpg --verify SHA512SUMS.sign SHA512SUMS will verify the .sign signature file against the signed file.

gpg --verify SHA512SUMS.sign SHA512SUMS
gpg: Signature made Sun 10 May 2020 00:16:52 UTC
gpg:                using RSA key DF9B9C49EAA9298432589D76DA87E80D6294BE9B


The signature is as given on the Debian CD verification page given above.

You can import that key from the Debian key servers if you wish.

gpg --keyserver keyring.debian.org --recv-keys DF9B9C49EAA9298432589D76DA87E80D6294BE9B

You can import the signature for checking from the SKS keyservers which are often more available:

gpg --keyserver pool.sks-keyservers.net --recv-keys DF9B9C49EAA9298432589D76DA87E80D6294BE9B 

and you then get:

gpg --verify SHA512SUMS.sign SHA512SUMS
gpg: Signature made Sun 10 May 2020 00:16:52 UTC
gpg:                using RSA key DF9B9C49EAA9298432589D76DA87E80D6294BE9B
gpg: Good signature from "Debian CD signing key " [unknown]
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: DF9B 9C49 EAA9 2984 3258  9D76 DA87 E80D 6294 BE9B


My own key isn't in the Debian CD signing key ring - but this does now show me that this is a good signature from the primary key fingerprint as given.

Repeating the exercise from the other day and producing a Debian amd64 netinst file using jigdo, I can now check the checksum on the local .iso file against the checksum file distributed by Debian. If they match, it's a good sign that the CD I've generated is bit for bit identical. For my locally generated file:

sha512sum debian-10.4.0-amd64-netinst.iso
ec69e4bfceca56222e6e81766bf235596171afe19d47c20120783c1644f72dc605d341714751341051518b0b322d6c84e9de997815e0c74f525c66f9d9eb4295  debian-10.4.0-amd64-netinst.iso


and for the file checksum as distributed by Debian:

less SHA512SUMS | grep *iso
ec69e4bfceca56222e6e81766bf235596171afe19d47c20120783c1644f72dc605d341714751341051518b0b322d6c84e9de997815e0c74f525c66f9d9eb4295  debian-10.4.0-amd64-netinst.iso


and they match! 

As ever, I hope this blog post will help somebody.

[Edit: Someone has kindly pointed out that grep *iso SHA512SUMS | sha512sum -c will check this more efficiently.]














 


 

No comments:

Post a comment